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LAKE ALBANO

Published June 29, 2014 by Tony

– ROMAN ARCHITECTURES –

Lake Albano

The lake Albano is located in the Castelli Romani, on the Alban Hills in Rome, and with its depth of 170 meters is one of the deepest crater lakes.
A lovely stretch of water, dominated by the papal residence, located about three hundred meters above the sea level and that reaches a maximum width of 3500 meters and with a perimeter of  9800 meters.
During the terminal phase of the volcanic activity of the Latium’s volcanoes, the encounter between the masses of magma and the groundwater favored the formation of numerous lakes, such as Lake Albano and Lake Nemi that are the only ones left to date.
From thousands of years, the eruptive activity is still in a quiescent state, but it is still possible to record volcanic phenomena albeit modest, and emanations of carbon dioxide from the bottom of the lake, that cross the water in the form of bubbles.
Apart from its beauty in the setting of buildings and woods, this lake is remembered for the colossal work of hydraulic engineering of the so called  “emissary”, which Romans built in 397 BC using techniques still unknown. The reason for this emissary is mainly due to avoid the flooding of the lake that could destroy the Emperors’ villas.
Instead, according to the historian Livy, this work of hydraulic engineering, particularly interesting for those times, would have been originated by a prophecy of the Delphic oracle:

At the time when the Romans besieged the inhabitants of Veii [in the days when the star Sirius was rising] in the season when the waters of the lakes are lowered, as is the case for all rivers except the Nile, and in a period when there is no rain or other causes perceptible to humans, the lake located on the Alban Hills, where the mother city of Rome rises up, had such a growth of waters to flood a large portion of the surrounding region, destroying many farms, cutting through the mountain and pouring a large river in the plains below.  At first, Romans believed that a god was angry, and voted to propitiate gods and minor deities of the region, and then they asked to the soothsayers what they thought about this, but since they did not have anything to say, Romans decided to consult the oracle Delphi.
In the meantime, thanks to the Veii’s Etruscan soothsayers, the Romans who had besieged Veii, gained knowledge that, according to ancient prophecies, the victory of the Romans against Veii became feasible only when the lake’s water had channeled and used to irrigate the fields. After a short time, a messenger returned from Delphi with a similar response, a thing that pushed the Senate to dig canals to drive the overflowing warm waters of the lake.
Dion.Hal, Romanae Antiquities, XII, 10-12

And so it was; in no time the water reached the sea, at first thru a gallery of about 2500 meters, that appeared near the Via Appia in the locality “Quarto Mole” (below Castel Gandolfo), and then with another funnel that reached “Tor di Valle”, and from there into Tiber river. It has been a complicated manual labor of about 180 cm in height and 120 cm in width, with tunnels and vents that still could be useful in the event of a flooding.

emissary entranceLake Albano’s emissary, which ran until 1980, when ill water level began to drop 1 meter every 3 years.

Emissary

NAPLES ANCIENT BUILDINGS

Published January 13, 2014 by Tony

– MYSTERY AND DECAY OF PALACE PENNE –

Penne's palace

Palazzo Penne is a Renaissance building in Naples, built by Antonio Penne, located in the Piazzetta Teodoro Monticelli, in that narrow blind alley that leads to the long and narrow “Scalea del Pennino” in the Sedile “Porto”.
Antonio Penne, so named because coming from the town of Penne in Abruzzo, belonged to a wealthy bourgeois family, and in 1391 he became secretary and special adviser to the king Ladislaus of Anjou (Naples 1374-1414), son of Margherita of Durres, nephew of the Queen Joanna I. His prestige at court became so high till to obtain permission to erect his own memorial in Santa Clara’s church, exclusive place for Angevin nobility, where today, in a chapel we can still admire his tomb.
Once this property was famous for a legend that hovered over, while in the last centuries a total negligence led it to ruin.

Penne's tomb

HISTORY

Palazzo Penne was built in 1406 and the area where it is located is called “Pennino” (meaning slope), because it was a small hill where the road surface was about 5 meters lower than now, a place that at the time was considered healthy, and safe against flooding landslides.
The year of manufacture can be inferred from the inscription on a plaque above the arch at the entrance of the building: “XX anno regni regis Ladislai sunt domus haec facte nullo sint turbine fracie mille fluunt magni bistres centum quater anni.” The inscription arranges a single block with the Anjou-Durres’ coat of arms. The concession of the sovereign to embellish the building with weapons and symbols of the royal family, as well as the approval of Penne’s blazon, signified the eternal protection to the family Penne.

The facade  is made with ashlar rusticated “piperno” alternated with “soft stone of the mountain”, referred to as “piperino tuff”, which is actually trachyte: a compact yellowish rock. The pediment is formed by arches called “flaming Gothic” with the crown of King Ladislaus in the first order, and below the Cross of Jerusalem, Majorca’s coat of arms (poles), and the stripes of Durres’ lineage. In the ashlar frame you see the “feathers”, symbol of the house in three rows, topped by Angevin lilies in seven rows, in honor of King Ladidslao. In the middle of the arch, a composition represents the religious and superstitious spirit of Antonio Penne: the stylized clouds from which come out some beams (the divine light) with two hands holding a tape containing two engraved lines of Martial (against evil eye) “Avi Ducis Vultu Sinec Auspicis Isca Libenter Omnibus Invideas Tibi Nemo” (you, who do not turn your face and do not look at this building willingly or envious, envy everyone well, no one envies you). The door is oak, although altered over the centuries, is one example of craftsmanship with steel spikes, iron studs called “Peroni”, consisting of the original arches of the Gothic period.
The inner courtyard is decorated with a beautiful five-arched portico with a lovely garden still partly preserved. Originally, in the courtyard there were sixteen stables, while the beautiful porch was adorned with statues of the Roman period, all remodeled in 1740 and then covered up by the construction of the janitor’s home, as well as the “Majestic Arch” which remains only a track in the wall. In the apartment on the first floor there were two rooms, one looking out on the porch and another on a courtyard that led into the park, all with frescoed ceiling. In the courtyard there was a spiral staircase that led to the basement that were below the level of the building. A scale of piperno led to the second floor, where there was a large terrace with a balustrade still made with piperno.

After Antonio Penne’s death, the building passed to his nephew Onofrio, as long as the last heirs sold it to the family Rocco or Rocca, and finally in 1558, to Aloisia Scannapieco Capuano who in turn gave it to her son Giovanni Geronimo, married with Lucretia de Sangro.
In 1685 the house was purchased by the Order of the Somascan Fathers, the nearby church of Saints Demetrius and Bonifacio. The fathers Somascan modified it according to their needs and transforming it in novitiaten and cells for the Fathers. The transformations occupied nearly a century, new houses were built in the garden area, while part of the cellars, adjacent to the Church of Santa Barbara, were transformed into shops and other flats. The final annihilation of the ancient structure happened with the destruction of the top floor’s roof. With the arrival of the French, in the first decade of the nineteenth century, and with the abolition of religious orders in 1806, the building was put up for sale and became the property of the abbot Teodoro Monticelli, noble barons of Cerreto, a volcanologist.
After his death in 1845, the assets were sold to the University of Naples, while the watchman Saverio Monticelli remained, the grandson of Theodore. In memory of Monticelli was a plaque on the first floor of the building, commissioned by the Civic Administration in 1909. In 2002, the Region of Campania bought the building for 10 billion lire, held by a private possession who had transformed the building into a “bed and breakfast” . The palace was then transferred on loan to “University Orientale” in 2004. The project involved the construction of laboratories, rooms for seminars or conferences, and services for students. Work on the renovation of the building that never initiated by the presence of squatters in the building. In 2007, the intellectuals Alda Croce e Marta Herling, daughter and granddaughter of the philosopher Benedetto Croce, obtained the suspension of the squatters works inside the building for the construction of some housing units by the occupants (who resumed work despite the ban). To no avail the appeals of the President of the Republic and UNESCO for the start of restoration work. On 20 May 2008 the investigations requested by UNESCO through the Italian judiciary, were concluded, and among the defendants the governor Antonio Bassolino and the then dean Pasquale Ciriello, for the non-restorative intervention against an artifact of historical and artistic interest. In November 2009, the Prosecutor has requested the dismissal of the process, giving the opportunity to the Public Prosecutor to appeal to the prosecution, if the case. In 2013, all the defendants in the trial, for damage to property of historical interest, were acquitted by the Tribunal of Naples because the crime does not exist. The agreement between the Region and the last two individuals, illegally occupying the building and to which it has been procured an alternative residence, has allowed to finally put the entire building under the supervision of the Region and the University Orientale, which must agree to the restorative intervention and the intended use. In November 2008, work  for the safety of the building has begun, to prevent further deterioration, as a new abusive attack, nipped in the bud by the Superintendent and the City of Naples, took place in the early months of 2009 when an adjoining hotel was taking possession of the garden.
For now, the only certainty is the decay and neglect that still prevail in the building.

THE LEGEND
”Beelzebub’s building”

As soon as the noble Antonio Penne come to Naples with the French entourage, he fell in love with a beautiful Neapolitan young girl.
Having too many offers of marriage and the next day to give an answer to other suitors, the damsel replied that she maybe would agree only if the Penne had built, for the next morning, a building equal to her beauty, as a pledge of love and wedding gift. Sure that he had not been able to fulfill such an absurd request because, alas, she already had chosen the man to marry.
Aware that he could not cope with such an impossible request, it is said that to just to have a change, the nobleman asked for help to the devil, Beelzebub, who accepted in exchange for Penne’s soul. Antonio accepted by signing with his own blood, but reserving the right to insert an irrelevant clause that he would reveal in the end.

At midnight the evil forces began their work, and at dawn and the building was ready. At this point Beelzebub asked him about the last clause and Antonio explained it: he would have sprinkled many grains of wheat in the courtyard, and the devil would have to pick up and count them all, and if he had missed even one of them, the agreement was no longer valid. Said than done, when the devil counted the grains their number wasn’t exact, because Antonio  deliberately had mixed them with pitch, and inevitably some of them stuck under Beelzebub’s nails. This one protested demanding for his soul, but Antonio made the sign of the cross obliging the devil to sink in the courtyard, where today it is said that there is a well.

 

SEDILI IN NAPLES

Published January 11, 2014 by Tony

Old Administrative Institutions in Naples

In Naples, the “Sedili” (Seats), also called Seggi o Piazze (Squares), were in force from the thirteenth to the nineteenth century, and they were administrative institutions of the city, whose representatives, known as Eletti (Elects), met in the convent of San Lorenzo to take decisions about the civil administration for the common good of the City. The first six seats were attended only by the nobility, while the citizens had their own representatives in the seventh Seat.
The Sedili became extinct in 1800 due to an edict of King Ferdinand IV of Bourbon, who abolished their functions. In 1808, after Joachim Murat’s reforms, the functions and responsibilities of the seats were assigned to the new Municipality institution (City Hall), with the election of the first mayor. Despite the abolition of these local administrative units, the names of some of them, still indicate the area (neighborhood) where these old Sedili were.

NAME

HISTORY

VENUE

Coat of Arms

Capuana

(Capoana)

The name derived from the surname of an influential family.

Via Tribunali

Capoana

Montagna

So named cause it was situated in a high part of the city.

Via Tribunali

Montagna

Forcella

In neapolitan this name refers to the shape Y, a symbol that was the emblem of the nearby school of Pythagoras. The motto of this Seat was: “For good agendum sumus,” (we were born to do good). This seat was merged with Montagna’s seat.

Via Forcella

forcella

Nilo

So named for the presence of the statue of the Nile River and in memory of traders Alessandrini, who dwelt therein.

Piazzetta Nilo

nilo

Porto

So called because it was near the ancient port of Naples.

Via Mezzocannone

Porto

Portanova

So named because, during the Greek time, the city’s walls were enlarged and a new entrance was built near the sea.

Piazza Portanova

Porta_Nova

Popolo

So named because it represented not-aristocratic people of the city. Representatives could only report people’s complaints and actively participate in street festivals or religious processions. They were chosen among the middle class (doctors, writers, lawyers, notaries, merchants, etc.)

Largo della Selleria (current Piazza Nicola Amore)

popolo

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NEAPOLITAN LULLABIES

Published March 13, 2013 by Tony

NEAPOLITAN LULLABIES & NURSERY RHYMES


I do not think exist a people and a culture that does not have their own lullabies or nursery-rhymes, and since only few of them have a contemporary origin, we often must look to the past and find those created by our ancestors, those transmitted by our grandmothers, or that perhaps we ourselves played when were children.
In the past, lullabies and nursery rhymes were much in vogue and represented the essence of a wise, funny and jeering culture handed down from mother to son and that over time has become a popular culture’s wealth.
This unique literary genre found fertile ground in the ancient Neapolitan folklore that gave birth to many lullabies, nursery rhymes, tongue twisters, spells or spiteful-rhymes, that sometimes represented a daily “lived in”, and although at the beginning they were only transmitted orally, now fortunately is still possible to trace many of them around.
Here, I will mention the most famous texts, and to the extent possible, also will grapple with an almost-impossible translation into English (an acceptable literal translation, though the rhymes will inevitably be lost!), hoping that fans of this genre will appreciate my effort.

LULLABIES

Vòca vòca mastu ciccio
nà panèlla e na sasiccia
à panèlla c’ ‘a  magnamme e a sasiccia c’ ‘a stipamme
Voca voca marenaro
quanti pisci vanno a mare
vanno a mare a la marina
voca voca nenna mia
Row, row Master Ciccio
a (piece of) bread and a sausage
we eat the bread and
will store the sausage
Row, row seaman
how many fish are in the sea
go into the sea in the marine
row row my child
E fa la nonna e fa la nunnarèlla,
ca ‘o lupo s’ha mangiato ‘a pecurella.
E pecurella mia comme farraje,
quanno mocca a lu lupo te truvarraje?
E pecurella mia comme faciste,
quanno mmocca a lu lupo te truvaste?
E pecurella mia comme campaste,
quanno mmocca a lu lupo te truvaste?
And have you a lullaby and sleep,
that the wolf ate the sheep.
And my lil sheep how will you do,
when you’ll be in the wolf’s mouth?
And how did you do my lil lamb,
when you were in the wolf’s mouth?
And my lil lamb how did you survive,
when you were in the wolf’s mouth?
Nonna nonna,
nonna vo’ fa’ chesta nenna bella,
nonna vo’ fa’ mo’ ch’è piccerella,
che quann’è grossa s’addurmenti sulella
E nonna nonna, chè la nonna è bona,
li pare tuoie dòrmen’ a lu lietto,
sola ’sta nenna nun trov’ arricietto
Lullaby, lullaby
sleep (is what this) cute baby wants,
sleep (is what) this lil girl wants to do,
who when older will sleep all alone
And lullaby ’cause sleeping is good,
your peers are sleeping in the bed,
only this child is not finding peace
Nonna nonna.
Quanno sant’Anna cantav’ a Maria,
quante belle canzone le diceva!
E le diceva: adduòrmete, Maria.
Maria ch’era santa s’addurmeva;
e le diceva: adduòrmete, Dunzella,
tu si’ ‘a mamma de li virginelle ; e le diceva: adduòrmete, Signora,
tu si’ ‘a mamma de lu Salvatore;
e le diceva: adduòrmete, Regina,
tu si’ la mamma de Gesù Bambino!
Lullaby
when Santa Anna sang to Mary,
how many beautiful songs she sang!
And she said her: Mary asleep
Mary who was a saint fell asleep
and she said her: Damsel asleep
you are young virgins’ mother
and she said her: Ma’am asleep
you are Savior’s mother
and she said her: Queen asleep,
you are Christ Child’s mother!
 Oh! la nonna, nonnarella,
’sta figlia mia se fa i suonne belle;
se fa i suonne che se facette Maria,
cu l’ uocchie chiusi e cu ‘a mente a Dio.
Cu l’ uocchie chiusi e cu ‘a mente ai Santi
’sta figlia mia pozza crescere santa!
Oh sleep, lullaby,
this my daughter has good dreams;
dreaming the dreams that Mary did,
with closed eyes and mind to God
with closed eyes and mind to Saints,
may my daughter grow (as a) saint!
Vieni suonno e vieni chiano chiano
cu ‘a lanterna e lu bastone ‘n mano.
Vieni suonno e vieni ra lo monte
co’ na palloccia d’oro e rare n’ fronte.
rare n’ fronte e mo’ re nce fa male
nun tengo pezze pe la mmerecare.
Vieni suonno e vieni ca t’aspetto
Come Maria aspetta Giuseppe.
San Giuseppe mio vicchiariello
porta lo suonno sotto ‘o mantello.
Vieni suonno e vieni e non tardare
sta figlia se vole riposare.
Come lullaby and comes slowly, slowly
with lantern and a walking stick in hand.
Come slumber and come from mountain
with a gold ball and throw it on the forehead. T
hrow it on the forehead and without harming. I don’t have rags to medicate. Come slumber, comes that I wait for you. Like Mary expects Joseph.
Saint Joseph my old man
bears the sleep under the cloak.
Come slumber, come, don’t delay
this daughter (child) wants to rest.
Nonna, nonna, nonna nunnarellòooo
Tutte so’ brutte e ‘stu figliu mio è bello
‘stu figliu mio è malo ‘mparato,
e nun s’addorme si nun è cantato,
nun è cantato da li belle donne,
stu figliu mio bello mo’ s’addorme.
Nonna, nonna, nonna nunnarellòooo
all are ugly and this my child is beautiful
this child of mine is not educated,
and doesn’t fall asleep if it’s not sung,
if to singing aren’t beautiful women,
now this cute baby of mine will sleep.


Nursery Rhymes, Tongue Twisters, Spells

A farfallina rossa me murzecate ‘o musso
nu poco e vino russo me fatte ‘mbriaca’
mannaggia cca, mannaggia lla’
mannaggia a lettera e papa’
nu pare e zucculillo
na rosa inde e capilline’
guaglio’ che guarda a fa’
je a mossa a saccio fa!

A lil red butterfly, you bit my lip
a little red wine made ​​me drunk
damn here, damn there
damn the dad’s letter
you look like a rat
a rose in the hair, boy why you look at me
I know how to do the move!

Ce steve ‘na vota
‘nu viecchie e ‘na vecchia
stevene e casa areto a ‘nu specchio,
stevene e casa areto a ‘nu monte…
statte zitte che mò tu conte.
E tu conte dint’ ‘a tiana,
mammeta e patete i ruffiani.

Once Upon a Time
an old man and woman
were standing at home behind a mirror,
were at home behind a mount …
shut up now this is the story.
And I’ll tell you it in the pot,
your mom and dad bootlicker.

Cicerenella teneva no gallo
tutta la notte nce jeva a cavallo,
essa nce jeva pò senza la sella
chisto è lo gallo de Cicerenella.
Cicerenella tenea na gallina
faceva ll’ova de sera e matina,
l’avea mparata a magnà farenella
chesta è ‘a gallina de Cicerenella
Cicerenella had a cock
all night she rode on it,
she did it without the saddle
this is the cock of Cicerenella.
Cicerenella had a chicken
laid eggs in the evening and morning,
she had learned it to eat the corn
this is the hen of Cicerenella
Storta picòscia,
tiene ‘e coscie mosce mosce,
e sotto ‘o suttanìno,
tiene ‘o scoglio ‘e Margellina.
Crooked bowlegged
you’ve legs limp limp
and under the slip,
have the Mergellina’s cliff.
‘A gallina zoppa zoppa,
quanti penne tene ncoppa?
E ne tene vintitrè,
uno, doje e tre.
E teneva nu turnesièllo,
e s’accattàje nu susamièllo;
mièzo a me, mièzo a te,
mièzo a’ figlia d’ ‘o Re!
The hen lame lame
how many quills gets on?
It has twenty-three,
one, two and three.
And had a coin,
and bought a cookie
half to me, half to you,
half to the daughter of the King!
Chiòve e ghièsce ‘o sole,
tutte ‘e vecchie fanno ammore;
fanno ammore cu ‘a tiàna,
tutte ‘e vecchie so’ ruffiàne;
fanno ammore ‘inte ‘o ciardino,
tutte ‘e vecchie malandrìne
It’s raining and sun comes out,
all old women make love;
make love with the pot,
all the old are pandering;
make love in the garden
all the naughty old
Fieto, fietillo,
chi l’ha fatto ‘o peretillo?
‘o peretillo è gghiuto all’uòrto,
e chi fete ‘e cane muòrto?
Stink, small stink,
who did the fart?
the little fart went in the vegetable patch,
and who stinks like a dead dog?
Nuvena, nuvena,
ca màmmeta è prena
ha fatto nu figlio
e se chiamma Michele,
e tene na figlia
c’addora ‘e tabacco
e quanno cammina
l’abbàllano ‘e pacche.
Novena, novena,
your mom is pregnant
gave birth a child
and his name is Michele,
and has a daughter
who smells of tobacco
and when she walks
dance her butt
Quanno mammeta fa ‘a cazetta,
‘o mazzarièllo addò s’ ‘o mette ?
Si s’ ‘o mette areto a ‘e rine,
fa ‘a cazetta p ‘e pellerìne;
si s’ ‘o mette areta ‘a porta,
fa ‘a cazetta p ‘ ‘ o guardaporta;
si s’ ‘o mette dinte ‘o lato,
fa ‘a cazetta p ‘ ‘o nnammurato;
si s’ ‘o mette ‘inte ‘a cintura,
fa ‘a cazetta p ‘ ‘a criatura;
si s’ ‘o mette sotto ‘o core,
fa ‘a cazetta p ‘ ‘o cunfessore.
When your mom knits the sock,
where does she put the stick?
If puts it behind her
knits the sock for the pilgrim;
If puts it behind the door
knits the sock for the doorman
if puts it on the side,
knits the sock for the lover
if puts it under the belt,
knits the sock for the unborn
if puts it under the heart,
knits the sock for the clergyman
Sbatte ‘e mmane ca vene papà,
porta ‘o zucchero e ‘o baba’
nuje ‘o mettimmo a cucenà
e ‘o nennillo s’ ‘o va a magnà…
Blink your hands that now dad comes,
brings sugar and babà
we put it to cook
and the child goes to eat it
Dimane è festa, e’ o sorice ‘nfenesta,
a jatta cucina e o’ sorice mett’o vino,
mett’o vvin’a carafelle, e o’ pane
a felle, a felle
Tomorrow is holiday, the rat comes by window, the cat cooks, and the rat pours the wine, put the wine in jugs, and bread
sliced​​, sliced

E sarde se magnane alice,
l’uocchi tuoi so doie curnice
si saglie n’coppa mammeta che me dice?

Sardines eat anchovies,
your eyes are two frames
if I come to you, what your mom tells me?

Aiza, aiza, aiza
acala acala acala
accosta accosta accosta
â saluta nosta
!

Lift up, lift up, lift up
turn down, turn down, turn down
put close, put close, put close
to our health
Carùso, mellùso,
miette ‘a capa ‘int’a ‘o pertùso,
e vene ‘o scarrafòne
e te ròseca ‘o mellòne.
bald, melon-like
put your head in the hole
and get the roach
and gnaws the melon.
Munzù, munzù, munzù,
è gghjuta ‘a zoccola ‘int’a ‘o rraù.
‘A signora nun ‘o vo’ cchiù,
magnatillo tutto tu.
Munzù, munzù, munzù,
a rat went to finish in the ragù
the Ma’am does not want it more
eat you it all.
Dinte a chesta manèlla,
nce stev na vòta na funtanèlla,
venèven a bere ‘e paparelle…
piu, piu, piu…
Inside this little hand
once there was a small fountain
came to drink the little duckies …
cheep, cheep cheep …
Sennuzzo, va `o puzzo
va a mare
va add’a cummare
vide che te dice
e vienamello `a dicere.
Hiccups, goes to the well
goes to sea
goes from godmother
hear what she says
and come to say it to me

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Greek Myths Sexuality

Published February 23, 2013 by Tony

Greek Myths Sexuality
Erotic fancy Scenario III

 Statue d'Apollon, Musée archéologique de Naples, Italie

Apollo, Zephyrus and Hyacinth

The god Apollo was the illegitimate son of Zeus and Leto (Latona), twin brother of Artemis.
When Zeus’ wife Hera discovered that Leto was pregnant and that Zeus was the father, she banned Leto from giving birth on “terra firma”. In her wanderings, Leto found the newly created floating island of Delos, which was neither mainland nor a real island. Here, she gave birth there, without infringing the provisions of the queen of Olympus, and was accepted by the people, offering them her promise that her son would be always favorable toward the city. Afterwards, Zeus secured Delos to the bottom of the ocean. This island later became sacred to Apollo.
Apollo, deity of ancient Greece, was the god of all the arts, medicine, music and prophecy, and its main symbol was the Sun. In Greek culture he was characterized by ineffability, by an androgynous figure and by a look of a hunter, wolf chaser (hence Apaliunas Lyceus).

Hyacinth, statue by François Joseph Bosio, Louvre
Apollo is usually depicted crowned with laurel, plant a symbol of victory, under which some legends says that this god was born. His typical attributes were the bow and the lyre. Animals sacred to him were swans (symbol of beauty), and the rooster as a symbol of homosexual love, since he fell in love with several men. Apollo had many epithets, designed to reflect the different roles, powers and aspects of his personality, like that of Phoebus, meaning “bright” or “shining” referring to its great beauty, of which he was proud, or its link with the sun. His bisexual nature, found in many other Greek mythological figures, led him to have numerous love affairs, with  women (Daphne, Cassandra, Marpessa, Melissa), and with men (Hyacinth, Zephyr, Licoreo, Asclepius, Admetus, Hymenaios).
Following what it is said about the relationship between Apollo and Hyacinth, also described by Homer,
here’s a personal  

erotic fancy scenario

(suitable for adults)

Apollo and Hyacinthus, 16th-century Italian engraving by Jacopo Caraglio

Apollo was madly in love with Hyacinth and just to be with him, he omitted all its major activities. They both spent hours in the woods where, in the stillness and to the shade of trees, were used to entertain and amuse themselves. Apollo loved to caress and kiss tenderly the companion, who felt attracted by The Sleep of Endymion by Anne-Louis Girodet (1818), Musée du Louvre, Paris.Apollo. However, the ambivalent character of Apollo led him to become often rude and quite violent, thing which did not like to the delicate and younger Hyacinth. Hugging each other, Hyacinth also liked caress and touch the more mature body of his boyfriend. A love really tender and intense. When the passion of Apollo was lit, he could not restrain himself and immediately asked the boy to suck his cock that in the meantime had become big and hard. While lying on the grass, his hands held Hyacinth’s head, driving its movements, but pushing to make sure that the boy’s mouth swallowed all the way down his cock, Apollon Embraces Hyacinthosbothering Hyacinth who felt to choke. Young and strong as he was, Phoebus was not satisfied by a simple suck and after having ejaculate for the first time, then asked the boy to squat onto his phallus, and holding with the hands his hips, brought him to come down until his cock was fully housed in the boy’s bowels. After a few moments of pain, Hyacinth enjoyed the penetration and gladly began to ride on the crotch of his tutor. After a while, the fatigue was not slow in coming, and to go ahead Apollo turned on his side, bringing the boy’s body, clinging to his, to lay on the ground, one behind the other. Through a slow and steady “to and fro” Apollo went on to fuck, savoring every inch of those tender Giulio_Romano_-_Apollo_Cyparissusinnards. Having nothing else to do and being so pleasant, they could remain for a long time to enjoy that carnal union. Only towards the end, when the second ejaculation was coming, Apollo gain the upper, and sprawling onto Hyacinth, completed the sexual act by violent and strong thrusts that forced the boy to sink his hands into the soil to keep himself firm on the ground.
They loved each other so, through a deep and passionate relationship, while time passed among games, jokes and sex.
One day Zephyr had to pass from there, and seeing Hyacinth alone playing in the woods, glided like a puff of air on the ground and began to speak with the guy. Although younger than him, Zephyr had fewer years than Apollo and it was love at first sight.

Louis_De_Boulogne_-_Zephyr_Crowning_FloraNot a day passed that Zephyr not return there to spend time with the boy and since a caress leads to another, it happened that the two had sex. Zephyr’s love was more platonic and sensual than Apollo, thing which appealed more Hyacinth, who preferred  sweetness more than spirited passion. When the boy saw that the story could not continue, tried to talk to Zephyr, but he was now too much in love to give up and maybe it was even the same Hyacinth to felt Apollo e Giacinto, dipinto a olio di Méry-Joseph Blondelsweetness towards Zephyr.
It was to be expected, and one day Apollo saw the two together and threw violently against Zephyr threatening and forbidding him to meet Hyacinth again and to never return in that place.
Zephyr could do nothing but retreat in good order but, blinded by jealousy swore to himself that he would avenged. Time passed and one day, while Apollo was playing at the discus-throw together Hyacinth, Zephyr was watching them from a distance, and decided to act quietly without being seen. Jealousy had clouded his mind and repeating “nothing for me nothing for nobody” blew on the discus that the two lovers had launched into the sky, forcing it to turn and come back at high speed, hitting mortally the head of the poor Hyacinth. Apollo barely managed to grab the boy’s body, while helplessly witnessed his death.
The_Death_of_HyacinthosBoth slumped to the ground, with Hyacinth lifeless in his arms, while Apollo were weeping and despairing.  Apollo tried to save the young man striving every known medical art, but nothing to do against the fate. Not being able to do anything else, then he decided to turn his beloved friend in a flower with an intense purple color, like the color of the blood spilled on the ground and on which even his tears were falling. Then, before going back to Heaven, leaning over the flower just created, Apollo with his tears drew on the petals the letters άί (ai which in Greek is an exclamation of pain), as a sign of undying grief felt for so much misfortune, which had deprived him of love of his young friend.
Flower that still bears the name of hyacinth.

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Hyacinthus_'Red_Magic'

 

 

Phlegraean Fields

Published November 24, 2012 by Tony

CUMA-BAIA

Phlegraean Fields

The “Campi Flegrei” (Phlegraean Fields), is a large area of volcanic north-west of the city of Naples, like a peninsula. The word “flegrei” comes from the greek Flego which means “burn”. In the area are still recognizable least twenty-four between craters and volcanic structures, some of which have effusive gaseous manifestations (area of ​​Solfatara) or hydrothermal (Agnano, Pozzuoli, Lucrino) and are due to the phenomenon of bradyseism (very recognizable for its size in the past the so-called temple of Serapis at Pozzuoli). Geologically the area of the Phlegraean Fields caldera is a large quiescent with a diameter of 12-15 km in the main part, where there are numerous craters, small volcanic structures and volcanism areas subject to a secondary (fumaroles, hot springs , bradyseism …). Throughout the area are important visible deposits of volcanic origin as the Campanian Grey Tuff (or Ignimbrite Campana) or Yellow Tuff. In the area there are lakes of volcanic origin (Lago d’Averno), and lakes originated for dam (Lake Fusaro, Lake Lucrino and Lake Miseno).

Phlegraean Fields, lake Fusaro

Cuma and Baia are two archaeological sites in the province of Naples, Pozzuoli near the territory of which it is part, located in the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei.
In principle, Cuma is thought to have been founded around 740 BC, although the earliest archaeological evidence dates back to 725-720 BC
According to legend, the founders of Cuma was the Eubei of Chalcis under the guidance of Ippocle of Cuma and Megasthenes of Chalcis.
The city of Cuma was entirely directed toward the Acropolis, the highest part of every Greek city, situated in a very favorable geographical position, that is, on a hill near the sea.

In addition to the “Sybil Cave”, mentioned in the previous post, at Cumae, you can see:
Lake D’Averno, Grotto of Cocceius, the Temple of Zeus, the Temple of Apollo, the Roman Crypt, the Temple of Serapis or Macellum, The Forum with the Forum Baths and the Capitol, Arco Felice (Felix Arch).

LAGO di AVERNO

lake averno

The lake takes its name from a deep, dark pit (currently unidentified) in its proximity and emanating sulphurous vapors, which, according to Greek and Roman religion, was access Netherworld, the realm of the god Pluto. For this reason the Roman underworld (Hades greek) are also called Hades.
In fact, even the poet Virgil in the sixth book of the Aeneid are close to the lake entrance to the mystical underworld where the hero Aeneas must go (scrupea, suit Lacu nigro nemorumque tenebris VI, 238). The name derives from the greek άορνος Avernus (‘no birds’) as the birds flying over the abyss die because of its sulfur fumes.
During the nineteenth century has been the subject of study in particular the optical phenomenon of Fata Morgana.

The lake Avernus is the crater of a volcanic apparatus formed 3,700 years ago in an old crater, the Archiaverno.
To the east of the lake there is a volcanic cone of Monte Nuovo, which was formed after an eruption lasting a few days (from September 29 to October 6, 1538). The crater of Monte Nuovo is visible with a short hike starting from the football field in Arco Felice. From the crater rim you have panoramic views over the bay of Pozzuoli including the islands of Ischia and Procida, west of Lake Averno, north of Mount Gauro and east to Mount Vesuvius.

Grotta di Cocceio

« Ibant obscuri sola sub nocte per umbram…
quale per incertam Lunam sub luce maligna est iter in silvis » (Virgil)

The Grotto of Cocceius (also called the Cave of Peace) is an underground tunnel that connects the lake Avernus with Cumae. The work was designed and built around 37 BC by Lucius Cocceius Aucto commissioned by Vipsanio Agrippa, who wanted the construction for military reasons: it was necessary to connect Cuma, fortification and lookout point on the Domitian coast-flegreo with the Portus Julius, an important military infrastructure located on basins of lake Avernus and the lake Lucrino, that artificial channels designed by the same Cocceius linked to each other and to the Gulf of Pozzuoli.  The tunnel was entirely dug in the tufa for about a mile, with a trapezoidal section and rectilinear, whose western entrance, on the lake, it was preceded by a vestibule adorned with columns and statues, was later destroyed. The gallery received light and air from six wells, dug into the hill, the longest of which was a hundred feet high, and it was large enough to allow the passage of two wagons. Parallel to the tunnel driveway on the north side, ran an underground aqueduct, also with niches and vertical wells, which provided water supply to the port.


The tunnel is also called “Grotta della Pace” (Cave of Peace), because according to a legend of the sixteenth century, a Spanish knight, Peter di Pace, badly advised by magicians and fortune-tellers, he squandered his property in the vain search for a supposed treasure therein buried.
The gallery, fall into oblivion, was restored in the nineteenth century by the Bourbon kings, during the Second World War it was used for storing explosives, and suffered damage when some of the explosives accidentally broke the First World War.

Currently, the cave is not open to visitors, for danger of collapse. The area is actually in a state of neglect and shabby. As always, many antiquities and works of art in Naples, for lack of funds and will, are abandoned to their fate. It would have taken half of the archaeological heritage that Naples has to make another city a highly qualified, researched and publicized city in the world.

Tempio di Apollo

Apollo_temple in Cuma

On the southern side of the terrace to the Temple of Apollo, brought to light in 1912. The terrace is paved all round with tuff and is bounded on the right by a parapet, also of tuff.
A sanctuary had to exist in this place since Vl sec.aC, but his consecration to Apollo is only by inscriptions of the Roman period found there, and perhaps previously was dedicated to Hera.
In front of the temple are the remains of a semicircular exedra perhaps, in Roman times, placed next to a well: facilities to report, probably oracular activity.

Cripta RomanaCocceio cavern

Designed to connect the lower town with the harbor area, the gallery, built during the Augustan age, crossed the acropolis from west to east with a length of m. 180. It was between the works of military buildup of the area has to ensure, together with the so-called cave of Mount Cocceio Grillo, direct communication between the Portus Julius and the port of Cumae.
The lighting of the tunnel was ensured by a series of open wells in time. In the last section on the right, were built two large tanks with steps for filtering water: the vestments, in opus reticulatum, are covered with a thick layer of earthenware to three feet high, two successive cuts made in the bleachers began in communication with the gallery.
In the early Christian period, along the walls of this section were obtained tombs of rectangular shape and of various sizes. At the same period are the graffiti of crosses and simple gammate visible in some parts of the rock, which suggests that the Crypt, as of “Antro della Sibilla”, has been used as a catacomb.
The structure of the eastern end of the Crypta perhaps not the same as the old one: the poor state of preservation and the dense vegetation do not allow their exact reconstruction. However, it appeared, probably, a richly decorated marble, fragments of which were found at the exit.

Tempio di Serapide

An unique volcanic phenomenon raises and lowers from centuries this majestic building, bringing the water above and below the massive columns. The large building is one of the best examples of macellum, the food market, built between the late first and early second century. The building is square in plan, with a central courtyard surrounded on all sides by arcades, paved with marble and lined with 30 granite columns. Around the courtyard are the shops, according to the typical pattern of the markets of the Roman world. There must have been a higher level, as evidenced by a scale in the southern corner.

The temple of Serapis has certainly been an important spa antiquity (as evidenced by some historical artifacts), so that the name of the temple in the true sense can be considered improper. During excavations (1750) was found a statue of the Egyptian god Serapis, and therefore was considered a temple.
The structure is built within a rectangular area (75 meters long by 58 meters wide). Its construction is considered by most dating back to Flavian, the signs of subsequent restoration testify the longevity and the intensity of use of this center in Roman times.
Of particular artistic value are also the materials used for the interior of the temple (exceptionally beautiful marbles and mosaics). The apse is semi-dome, the statue of Serapis (deities of trades) is located below it.

Il Foro

The Forum of Cumae is now only partially in the light, as it still buried in the east. Its present appearance dates back to the monumental arrangement he received in the late Republican.
It is a rectangular plaza with EO orientation, similar in size to the holes of Pompeii and Paestum (50×120 m), connected to the surrounding urban fabric by a road system is not perfectly smooth, of which survive today paving and paths. The short side was bounded by West Capitol, here significantly decentralized to the south compared to the canons of the Hellenistic period, that placed the main building of the hole in the center of the bottom side. The Baths of the hole were built in the city center, in the north-west area of ​​the forum, in a space formerly occupied by structures from the Republican period. The building was built during a period of intense construction activity, a few decades after the opening of the street Domitiana (95 AD), typologically recalls the Terme di Via Terracina to Naples and those of the Forum in Ostia. The Capitolium was built during the Samnite period (IV-III century BC.) And perhaps originally consecrated to the worship of Jupiter Flazo in CapitoliumRoman times the temple was dedicated to the Capitoline Triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva).
The temple stands on a high podium (m. 56.98 x28, 50) according to use italics: surrounded by a peristyle with the front of six columns, the cell had three naves, preceded by a large porch. The first phase are still visible in the podium by square blocks of Neapolitan yellow tuff, with double molding profile, and on the back of the cell, the floor in earthenware.

Giorgio Sommer

Published October 13, 2012 by Tony

GIORGIO SOMMER
NAPLES IMAGES & CULTURE


In a previous post dedicated to the German photographer Wilhelm von Plüschow, I also had set out to talk about another famous German photographer, Giorgio Sommer,  who gave so much to Naples, about its culture and natural beauty.  What you will read below has been taken from Wikipedia.org site.


Giorgio Sommer (1834–1914) was born in Frankfurt (Germany), and became one of Europe’s most important and prolific photographers of the 19th century. Active from 1857 to 1888, he produced thousands of images of archeological ruins, landscapes, art objects and portraits. After studying business in Frankfurt, Sommer opened his first photography studio, during which time he worked in Switzerland, where he made relief images of mountains for the Swiss government. In 1856 moved his business to Naples and later (1866) formed a partnership with fellow German photographer Edmund who owned a studio in Rome. Operating from their respective Naples and Rome studios, Sommer and Behles became one of the largest and most prolific photography concerns in Italy.
Sommer’s catalog included images from the Vatican Museum, the National Archeological Museum at Naples, the Roman ruins at Pompeii, as well as street and architectural scenes of Naples, Florence, Rome, Capri and Sicily. Most notably, Sommer published his comprehensive album “Dintorni di Napoli” (Near Naples), which contained over one hundred images of everyday scenes in Naples. In April 1872, he documented a very large eruption of Mount Vesuvius in a series of stunning photographs. Sommer and Behles exhibited extensively and earned numerous honors and prizes for their work (London 1862, Paris 1867, Vienna 1873, Nuremberg 1885). At one time, Sommer was appointed official photographer to King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy.
Sommer was involved in every aspect of the photography business. He published his own images that he sold in his studios and to customers across Europe. In later years, he photographed custom images for book illustrations, as well as printing his own albums and postcards. He worked in all the popular formats of his day: carte de visite, stereoview, and large albumen prints (approximately 8×10) which were sold individually and in bound albums.

The images are a lot and I’ve chosen only a few to show to you now. Click to magnify.

730px-G__Sommer_1103  736px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_1171_-_Tempio_di_Venere_a_Diana_Baja  737px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__1155_-_Napoli_-_Vesuvio  742px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__2123_-_Sorrento  755px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__3830_-_Pozzuoli_-_Panorama  766px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__1191-_Amalfi  771px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__103_-_Napoli_-_via_Roma_(Monumento_a_Carlo_Poerio)  780px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__0556_-_Sorrento_-_Marina_coll'Albergo_Tramontano  792px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__2501_-_Napoli_-_Eruzione_del_Vesuvio_26_Aprile_1872  Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__1169_-_Capri_-_Marinella  Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__2044_Strada_da_Sorrento_ad_Amalfi_Positano_verso_Prajano  396px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__7102_COMO__Il_Duomo_  477px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_1516_-_MUSEO_DI_NAPOLI  741px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__1210_-_Pompei_-_Casa_del_Poeta  756px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__2066_-_Pesto_-_Tempio_di_Nettuno  759px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__2146_-_Capri_-_Grotta_azzurra  765px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__1297_-_Pompei_-_Strada_di_Stabia  773px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__2012_-_Amalfi_-_Convento_dei_Capuccini_-_Chiostro  800px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__4428_-_Bronzi_-_Museo_di_Napoli_-_Cornell_university_website  G__Sommer_1164  Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__3010_-_Pompei_-_Casa_dei_Vettii  761px-Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__1187_-_Napoli  777px-Makkaronifabrik_Neapel Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__11610_-_Napoli_-_Costume  Sommer,_Giorgio_-_Contadini_di_Capri_-_sec__XIX  Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__2742_-_Scritturale  Sommer,_Giorgio_(1834-1914)_-_n__2796_-_Zampognari     Sommer,_Giorgio_-_Famille_napolitaine  Makkaroniesser

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